The genetic structure of Patagonian toothfish populations in the Atlantic and western Indian Ocean Sectors of the Southern Ocean (SO) were analysed using partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene and seven microsatellite loci. Both haplotype frequency data (F ST>0.906, P<0.01) and microsatellite genotype frequency data (F ST=0.0141–0.0338, P<0.05) indicated that populations of toothfish from around the Falkland Islands were genetically distinct from those at South Georgia (eastern Atlantic Sector SO), around Bouvet Island (western Atlantic Sector SO) and the Ob Seamount (western Indian Ocean Sector of the SO). Genetic differentiation between these populations is thought to result from hydrographic isolation, as the sites are separated by two, full-depth, ocean-fronts and topographic isolation, as samples are separated by deep water. The South Georgia, Bouvet and Ob Seamount samples were characterised by an identical haplotype. However, microsatellite genotype frequencies showed genetic differentiation between South Georgia samples and those obtained from around Bouvet Island and nearby seamounts (F ST=0.0037, P<0.05). These areas are separated by large geographic distance and water in excess of 3,000 m deep, below the distributional range of toothfish (<2,200 m). No significant genetic differentiation was detected between samples around Bouvet Island and the Ob Seamount although comparisons may have been influenced by low sample size. These localities are linked by topographic features, including both ridges and seamounts, that may act as oceanic “stepping stones” for migration between these populations. As for other species of deep-sea fish, Patagonian toothfish populations are genetically structured at the regional and sub-regional scales.